Shifting Design Process: The Cassiopeia Camera Experience

By Estelle

Understanding the needs of multidisciplinary creative teams

This Article has been written by Teshia Treuhaft and originally appeared at Core 77

The evolution of design as a professional practice is one regularly impacted by developments in other fields. As designers, we often sit squarely between disciplines, streamlining and humanizing products for greater usability and appeal in the end result.

Never has the requirement to work between disciplines been as important as it is today. As industrial design becomes increasingly interwoven with service design, user experience design, engineering, manufacturing and more—designers must act as the bonding agent for teams producing innovative products.

In an effort to further understand these emerging hybrid teams of designers, managers and engineers, companies are going as far as studying the trend of co-creation to optimize for social ideation and more collaboration. Likewise, with the speed of technology and pace of product development, having tools and solutions that allow companies to build faster is proving a greater advantage than ever before.


In order to research the way teams work from the inside out, Dassault Systèmes put together a creative team to design the Cassiopeia Camera Experience. Cassiopeia is a concept for a connected camera that has the functionality of a digital SLR, and allows the user to sketch over photos and scan objects or textures. The team took Cassiopeia from inspiration phase to design validation, allowing Dassault Systèmes to gather first-hand knowledge of the needs of each team member and design solutions that directly enhance social ideation and creative design among the group.

Cassiopeia Camera Experience

Using this research, it becomes clear as the project progresses through different phases, that the requirements of each contributor change and communication between parties gains complexity. While each phase builds on the next, a well equipped team will be able to regularly come together during each phase for design validation.

We decided to take a deeper look at development of the Cassiopeia project for unique insight into the inner workings of a team—one that is not only building a product but a holistic experience.

Inspiration Phase

The inspiration phase of any product demands input from a number of key players inside and outside the company. This is often done by compiling references in the form of articles, visuals, sketches and more. A product manager typically leads this phase, however every member of the team can provide valuable input at this fledgling stage.

Team gathers references and inspiration to define key functions of the product

Communication at the inspiration phase must support amassing source material and then distillation until a key concept emerges. The inspiration phase is particularly important for connected devices like Cassiopeia. In this case, the design team faces not only the task of designing the camera, but also the connected functionality. The complex use cases and physicality of the product must be developed in tandem during this phase for a unified end user experience.

Ideation Phase

Once the inspiration is clear to the team, the work of narrowing the idea down to a discrete set of requirements is the next step. This ideation phase moves the product from discussion of the concept into a physical form for the first time. For this phase, creative designers are tasked to visualize the product for the team, iterate together and repeat.

Rough sketches gives the product a form factor that can discussed and refined at later stages

Sketching in this phase is essential. It allows the team to understand possible variations and begin to make decisions about a number of factors. During ideation, the ergonomic and functional aspects of Cassiopeia merge for the first time into a rough form factor that can be communicated to the team.

Concept Design Phase

Once the product is visualized for the first time using the 3D sketches, the next step is to model the product at scale. An industrial designer will typically model the product in 3D, testing and refining design variations from the ideation phase.

An industrial designer adds scale and refines features of device. 

With Cassiopeia, this is the phase where shapes begins to emerge and the conversation about the product shifts from conceptual to physical. The goals of the design must be clarified and communicated clearly so that the product can seamlessly transition from a design into a physical object that can be considered from a manufacturability standpoint.

Detail Design Phase

Once the industrial designer has taken the design from concept sketch to 3D model, a design engineer takes the model and considers it from engineering and manufacturing perspective. This shift from design of the device to engineering of the device is a careful balance to retain as much of the original concept for the form factor as possible.

Foresight during the detail design phase offers ease of manufacturing and greater success in the final product.

This is a key matter of communication between the engineer and designer in order to deliver a product that not only is aesthetically aligned with the inspiration – but also can be manufactured. For Cassiopeia, this requires a seemingly subtle but highly important refinement of surfaces and geometry.

Design Validation Phase

In the final step, the team must simulate the product in order to engage in discussion and finalize the design. Design validation occurs both in the final steps and at regular intervals during the development. There are two main forms this validation takes, led by a visual experience designer and a physical prototyper. A visual experience designer will create a number of detailed renders, while the physical prototyper will develop physical 3D models.

Visualizing decisions is essential to engage key players inside and outside the team

For Cassiopeia this is a key phase as the camera has a number of complex parts, surfaces and functions. Regular design validation throughout the process gives access to all members of the team to make decisions about the final product. When collaboration is managed well, the multidisciplinary team will arrive at the validation phase having shared expertise at each step of the design process. As a result, the final prototype is a true reflection of their shared vision and is reached more quickly than ever before.

The development process of any electronic device is challenging for teams looking to innovate in their respective spheres. As consumer’s expectations increase for well-designed objects that provide comprehensive product experiences, the ability of teams to collaborate and move quickly will be increasingly valuable. The extent to which teams can effectively collaborate will be a defining factor for success – both for the team and the products they create.

To read more about Dassault Systèmes Solutions and Social Ideation and Creative Design, check out their website and webinar.

The art of making do

By Catherine


Written by Catherine Bolgar


When life gives you lemons, some make lemonade; others use the lemon juice to prevent the spread of gastroenteritis. Indeed, researchers at the German Cancer Research Center found that putting lemon juice on contaminated food or surfaces could be a cheap, practical and safe way to stop the spread of novoviruses, which cause gastroenteritis outbreaks, typically in hospitals, cruise ships and schools.

People who design solutions using simple materials are often called MacGyvers, named after the TV secret agent who would extricate himself from dangerous situations using only the materials to hand.

In India, such innovation is known as jugaad in Hindi. One jugaad pioneer is Ravidranath Tongaonkar, a surgeon in rural India, who substituted mosquito netting for expensive surgical mesh in the 1990s to repair groin hernias.

The idea spread. In Uganda, a piece of surgical mesh can cost $125  and patients often have to buy it themselves before an operation, says Jenny Löfgren, a medical doctor whose doctorate thesis at Umea University in Sweden examined the efficacy of mosquito mesh in Uganda.

However, when mosquito netting is cut to the right size, washed in water with a mild detergent and then disinfected for 30 minutes in an autoclave, it can do the job, Dr. Löfgren says. It’s important because out of 220 million hernias in the world, only 20 million receive operations. “And those who receive surgery in low- and middle-income settings are operated on with less-effective methods than in high-income countries,” she says.

The findings from our study will address and provide a solution for the inequality of surgery.”

Commonplace items are used for unintended purposes in a wide variety of situations world-wide. Cigarette ash has been deployed to removed 96% of arsenic from water, according to scientists at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Hefei and King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Brazilian scientists have used banana peel to extract heavy metals such as lead and copper from water. Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have used polyacrylate, a cheap, absorbent material found in diapers, to swell brain samples, making them easier to view under regular microscopes thus dispensing with the need for high-tech super-resolution microscopes. Another MIT team found that paraffin wax didn‘t just seal fruit preserves and jams, but was also a cheap way to encase chemical reagents to isolate them from oxygen, carbon dioxide or water. This allows for pre-measured “grab and go” capsules that don’t need an expensive inert storage container.

While Mr. MacGyver usually had to rely on paper clips and duct tape, today’s lab scientists have access to 3D printers—or at least know-how to make them. Consider the example of Michigan Technical University Prof. Joshua Pearce, who first made a self-replicating rapid (RepRap) 3D printer for about $500, that was comparable to $20,000 models.

He wanted to 3D print inexpensive versions of scientific equipment, such as open-source syringe pumps used in labs to discharge precise quantities of chemicals, in industry as 3D printing tool heads, and in hospitals to deliver medication.

The 3D printer uses open script-based computer-aided design, or SCAD, that calculates automatically the proportions for syringes of any size (whether pushing out tiny droplets or concrete). “You put in which size syringe you want and the size of the motor, and the parametric program automatically scales it and gives you the parts you need to print,” Dr. Pearce says.

You can customize the design, print out the files, then 3D print all the plastic parts, buying the few remaining parts at any hardware store, he says. The pump’s “brain” is an inexpensive credit-card size computer, the Raspberry Pi, which runs open-source software.

The free design and low-cost materials “make it possible for anyone to design a high-end syringe pump that might cost $2,000, for about $100,” Dr. Pearce says. “If a hospital in a developing country needs a high-end syringe pump, they can make it.”

The open-source software allows any changes to be widely shared. For example, the software was adapted to Arduino, an open-source electronics platform used on some 3D printers.

“Something you learn from engineering is you can design something exactly the way you want,” Dr. Pearce says. “Today, with open-source designs and easy access to prototype RepRap 3D printers, where you start is you go to the Web and download designs. You can stand on the shoulders of giants and your MacGyverism is taking that and applying it to a completely new application.”


Catherine Bolgar is a former managing editor of The Wall Street Journal Europe. For more from Catherine Bolgar, contributors from the Economist Intelligence Unit along with industry experts, join the Future Realities discussion.

Photos courtesy of iStock

Game-changing graphene: the amazing properties of a single-atom layer of carbon

By Catherine

Written by Catherine Bolgar


Step aside, silicon. There’s a new substance that promises to revolutionize medicine, industry, water treatment, electronics and much more. That substance is graphene—a single-atom-thick layer of carbon, a millionth of the width of a human hair.



The world’s first two-dimensional material, graphene is potentially plentiful (carbon being the sixth most abundant element in the universe) and cheap. And it possesses amazing qualities and potential uses:

It’s transparent, but conducts…

electricity and heat. Most good conductors are metals such as copper, which is opaque and quick to heat when electricity passes through. But they are prone to hot spots, which form around defects and cause electronic devices to fail. Graphene, by contrast, transfers heat efficiently. “It’s a good alternative to copper,” says Nai-Chang Yeh, professor of physics at California Institute of Technology. Indeed, electronic equipment may in future use graphene-coated copper interconnections to prevent overheating or wear and tear.

It’s light and flexible, but it is…

Hands of scientific showing a piece of graphene with hexagonal molecule.200 time stronger than steel. The carbon-to-carbon bond is very strong, says Rahul Nair, Royal Society fellow at the University of Manchester. In addition, graphene’s carbon atoms are arranged in a tight, uniform honeycomb structure, which is able to bear loads and resist tearing. A membrane of graphene could withstand strong force without breaking, says Dr. Yeh. It may someday be used in aerospace, transportation, construction and defense.

It’s a superlubricant

“If you take one piece of flawless graphene and put it on top of another, and slide one against the other, there’s almost no friction,” says Dr. Yeh. Coating machines parts with graphene could minimize unwanted friction, providing industry with countless applications.

It’s impermeable…

Graphene’s honeycomb structure is too tight for any molecules to squeeze through. “If you have graphene on metal, it’s perfect protection, because other molecules in the air cannot penetrate that honeycomb hole,” says Dr. Yeh. Indeed, Dr. Nair has dissolved graphene oxide in water to create a paint-like film that can protect any surface from corrosion. This graphene paint could be used by the oil and gas industry to protect equipment against saltwater, or by pharmaceutical and food packaging firms to block out oxygen and moisture, thereby extending their products’ shelf life, says Dr. Nair.

…but can also be permeable. A single-micrometer-thick film containing thousands of layers of graphene oxide has nanosize capillaries between its layers, which expand when exposed to water. However, those capillaries don’t expand when exposed to other substances. This is unusual because a water molecule is bigger than a helium or hydrogen molecule. However, water behaves differently when it’s within the confined space of a nanometer, moving rapidly through the graphene oxide nanocapillary. By contrast, salt that is dissolved in the water is blocked. One use for this, says Dr. Nair, could be water or molecular filtration.

It’s a chemical contradiction

A sheet of graphene is inert, but its edges are chemically reactive, says Dr. Yeh. A little graphene flake has a large perimeter relative to its area, allowing for more reaction. These flakes could be used to remove toxins from water.

It can be magnetic

MagnetThe zigzag-shaped edges of graphene have magnetic properties.“People imagine that you will be able to use graphene sheets as a magnet that can pick up iron at room temperature,” explains Dr. Yeh. That something all-carbon can be magnetic is “amazing,” she adds. Coupled with its electric conductivity, graphene’s magnetic properties may open up all sorts of applications in spintronics and semiconductors.

Graphene’s potential may be extraordinary, but how easy is it to create? It was first isolated in 2004 at Manchester University by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov who won the 2010 physics Nobel Prize for their work. They arrived at graphene by using adhesive tape to peel off ever-thinner layers from graphite, a process subject to continual improvement. In one common method, copper is heated to 1,000 degrees Celsius, near its melting point. Methane gas, comprising carbon and hydrogen molecules, is then added, and the copper rips off the bond between the two molecules, dissolving the carbon into the copper and letting the carbon “grow” on the surface, Dr. Yeh explains. The result is a sheet of graphene.

David Boyd and Wei-Hsiang Lin, working with Dr. Yeh at Caltech, however, found that what counts most is not heat but clean copper.  Copper oxidizes quickly in air and so has a thin layer of carbon oxide on its surface. They use hydrogen plasma, which has “gas radicals that behave like erasers and clean up the surface of the copper,” Dr. Yeh explains. The process allows graphene to grow in five minutes at room temperature.

Most importantly, this method could be scaled up to produce industrial amounts of high-quality graphene—a huge step towards realizing its true potential.

Catherine Bolgar is a former managing editor of The Wall Street Journal Europe. 

For more from Catherine Bolgar, contributors from the Economist Intelligence Unit along with industry experts, join the Future Realities discussion.


Photos courtesy of iStock

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