Five Steps to Industrialized Construction

By Akio

This post is an excerpt from the paper, “Industrialization of the Construction Industry,” by Dr. Perry Daneshgari and  Dr. Heather Moore of  MCA Inc.

In today’s construction environment the value transferred to the customer for every dollar spent is only around 46 cents.  More than 40% of the tradesmen’ time on a job site is spent on material handling; most of the work on a job site is performed by highly trained and paid skill tradesmen.

Tweet: Over 40% of tradesmen’ time on a #construction job site is spent on material handling @Dassault3DS @3DSAEC #AEC #BIM to tweet: “Over 40% of tradesmen’ time on a
#construction job site is spent on material handling”

To achieve comparable results as have been seen in the manufacturing and other industries the construction industry has to take these same five steps:

1. Segregation of Work

The most important contribution of Fredrick Taylor’s work to industrialization of manufacturing was his ability to observe the skilled and unskilled tradesmen at work for a long period of time and being able to breakdown the conducted work. Once the work was broken-down it could then be managed by better management of time, location and contributing resources.

“Principles of Scientific Management,” by Fredrick Taylor

Once the work was visible and understood, it could be designed in the most optimal manner, and segregated among the resources available.

Translating the segregation of work to the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) environment of today’s world would be using the work breakdown structure from the skilled trades’ perspective. Skilled tradesmen need to break down the work based on the required sequence of installation.

These installation packages would enable creation of work packages to be built and assembled by non-skilled workers.

2. Externalizing Work®

Henry Ford’s contribution to industrialization was to use the approach developed by Fredrick Taylor and create the work packages separate from the point of assembly of the final vehicle. Externalizing Work® in construction is using prefabrication process and techniques to improve reliability, safety, predictability and productivity of the work performed and labor usage.

In a recent example, Chinese used this method to construct a 15 story building in 6 days, where the traditional methods would have taken 9 to 12 months. There were zero accidents on the job site and the building was certified for 9.5 Richter scale earthquake resistance.

Tweet: How did the Chinese build a 15-story building in 6 days w/ ZERO accidents? @Dassault3DS @3DSAEC #prefab #AEC #BIM to tweet: “How did the Chinese build a
15-story building in 6 days w/ ZERO accidents?”

3. Application of Statistical Process Control (SPC)

Application of SPC was declared impossible in the AEC industry, until the ASTM Standard E2691 (Job Productivity Measurement -JPM) developed based on the JPAC® (Job Productivity Assurance and Control) proved everyone wrong. The main purpose of SPC was to predict the outcome of a project early on, and measure the deviation from the expected output as an ongoing measurement of progress and correction.

As part of the Agile Construction® methodology, JPAC® uses the knowledge based developed based on Drs. Shewhart and Deming’s approach in using ongoing production data to predict the deviation from expected output and project the end of the job outcome deviation. Using SPC, JPM/JPAC® is able to issue early warning signals for any common or special causes of deviation.

Using segregation and externalization of work this tool will enable higher effectiveness of the labor usage both at the production and final construction assembly site.

4. Application of Lean Process Design to improve Labor Effectiveness

Toyota’s approach to Lean Manufacturing Process design helped the manufacturing industry to focus on reducing waste, and activities which did not transfer value to the final customer, reducing their cost of production.

Application of Lean Processes in construction will require the usage of the three steps explained above. To reduce waste the work has to be segregated, externalized and tracked.

5. Application of 3D Modeling and Simulations and Feedback

To reduce the cost of design, development, prototyping, manufacturing and product life cycle durability, the next step in the industrial revolution was to manage the required information in an electronic modeling format. Modeling and simulation of all the product development and life cycle management was the outgrowth of the physical modeling.

Modeling works as an enhancement of the physical understanding and design of the final product and its usage. The accuracy of the modeling can only be improved by a real life feedback process.

The feedback mechanisms in manufacturing are typically sensors, servos and synchros, where in construction due to its manual final assembly nature the feedback comes from the final installer.

Tweet: The accuracy of modeling in #construction can only be improved by a real-life feedback process @Dassault3DS #AEC #BIM to tweet: “The accuracy of modeling in #construction
can only be improved by a real-life feedback process”

Short Interval Scheduling (SIS®) as part of the Agile Construction® process plays the role of the feedback sensor, servo or synchro. The “Lean Construction Solution Experience” developed by Dassault Systèmes is the models, simulations and life cycle management platform which enables the ability to get feedback from the final installer and model information within the work environment.

The Move to Industrialization

For the construction industry to match the productivity increases achieved by manufacturing the work has to be studied, segregated, externalized and commoditized. To reduce the cost and improve the productivity, lower-skill and non-skill workers have to be able to find work in the industry.

In order to effectively use a lower composite rate to reduce construction cost, lower-skilled workers have to be employed and used on the jobsites as well as off the jobsite in prefabrication or material management services such as vendor-managed inventory.

To manage the lower-skill levels the construction work has to be broken down into manageable chunks and the type of work has to be segregated. To allow lower skilled labor to contribute to work, the work has to be modularized and brought to the most common denominators.

This post is an excerpt from the white paper, “Industrialization of the Construction Industry,” by Dr. Perry Daneshgari and Dr. Heather Moore. Commissioned by Dassault Systemes and prepared by MCA Inc., this whitepaper focuses on industrialization of construction industry.

It maps out the construction industry challenges, relates the history of industrialization in the manufacturing industry, and summarizes five critical aspects and approaches.

Download the whitepaper and start accelerating the “Industrialization of the Construction Industry” through lessons learned from manufacturing and other industries.

Tweet: 5 Steps to Industrialized #Construction @Dassault3DS @3DSAEC #AEC #BIM to tweet this article


Related Resources:

Optimized Construction Industry Solution Experience

Download Optimized Construction Solution Brief

White Paper: Industrialization of the Construction Industry

MCA® Website

The Market Has Changed, So Has The Technology Supporting Your Business.

By Celia

In the current world of fashion, companies are rallying to become omni-channel (converged digital/physical new versions of themselves), and new opportunities to grow business, to collaborate, and to innovate have surfaced. The global consumer market has developed an insatiable appetite that is fresh and aligned with individual needs. While product customization requires significant changes in a company’s internal processes, fashion brands and retailers face a huge increase in the number of products and categories they carry as these represent new sources of revenues. They also carry more product variants as they adapt to new markets specifications, like sizes, styles and colors. This means they need a robust collaboration platform where product design and development teams can work together and in parallel in functional areas and on several seasonal lines at a time across several timezones. This also means huge gains in reuse and searching for information and supply chain agility.

PLM is no longer enough to deal with this complexity and businesses need to take the right technology approach while maximizing the value of their investment.  The IDC Maturity model white paper assesses the current state of the company organization and defines a road map that maximizes the value of investments across the five maturity stages of PLM/PIP transformation.

It’s an easy, step-by-step model to do your own assessment. Give it a try!

Fashion PLM, IDC Retail Insights

A View from the Ground at the Paris Air Show

By Ellen

The 51st Paris Air Show

The first two days of the Paris Air Show gave participants aerial demonstrations from the AIRBUS A350, A380 and A400M; Dassault Aviation Rafale and Falcon 8X; the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and the Patrouille de France. Also launched at the Paris Air Show, Dassault Systèmes announced Build to Operate, a new Industry Solution Experience for aerospace and defense companies that aims to maximize manufacturing operations.

Paris Air Show sign at Le Bourget

Global Manufacturing Efficiency

How does Build to Operate help manufacturers? For the past decade or so, large aviation OEMs have put a lot of effort in the design of increasingly composite aircraft. Given the growth in commercial aviation, aerospace manufacturers seek to implement more lean practices to improve program performance and equip global operations. One major way to improve performance is find a way to free data trapped in silos across the multitude of IT systems across the enterprise. Striving for lean manufacturing means having immediate access to information, removing labor intensive manual processes, and lower the risk to data integrity by eliminating the need to collect data over time and store it.

True manufacturing efficiency requires real-time data from across the enterprise. Essential to efficient and reactive manufacturing capability is the ability for all participants to work in unison, like a virtual symphony. Manufacturers must unite their global factories as one performing organization. This requires a platform that can integrate with other enterprise systems to ensure that all critical systems receive relevant shop-floor production information and support and synchronize global operations.

Build to Operate Provides Global Visibility and Control

Build to Operate helps both aerospace Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and large suppliers increase program efficiency and quality. Based on DELMIA Apriso, the solution offers Manufacturing Operations Management (MOM) capabilities to monitor, control and validate all aspects of manufacturing. This frees up manufacturers to focus on more strategic operations.

Manufacturing Operations Management includes a wide range of functions, but one major advantage is that it allows manufacturers to make fully informed decisions because they enjoy a full view of operations. A lack of visibility can have serious impact to manufacturing operations, so Control Center for complete oversight – especially across the extended enterprise. Because if you are unable to see where you are headed, the likelihood of making a decision that can adversely impact global support and synchronization is a real consideration, with real-world consequences.
Instant visibility on all levels of productivity—plant, line, station, cell and individual— is a critical enabler for continuous improvement. ‘Build to Operate’ brings this capability to existing production lines and accelerates the ramp-up of new lines to reach optimal rate. By receiving all required data, plant managers can view, control and execute automated manufacturing operations through sensors in real time.

The Build to Operate solution offers the ability to monitor, control and validate all aspects of global manufacturing operations – all with digital precision. These capabilities range from replicable processes and production sequences, to the flow of deliverables throughout their supply chain.

Having these competencies allows manufacturers to manage global material supplies, logistics execution and production operations in one site and then execute across all global sites. Visibility into operations (both within a single plant and across all plants) results in better alignment with business performance targets, including WIP and Labor.

Enable the Future Factory Today

Build to Operate increases the efficiency of manufacturers’ existing lines and accelerates the production ramp up of new ones to enable future factory innovations, today. Michel Tellier, Vice President, Aerospace & Defense Industry, Dassault Systèmes explains,

Aerospace companies implementing this ‘factory of the future’ today can expect benefits that include as much as a 25 percent reduction in errors, 20 percent less waste and up to a 15 percent improvement in first-time quality.”

factory Scene_01_cropAnother announcement at the Paris Air Show was Air Bus Helicopter sharing its objective for the solution.

“We adopted Dassault Systèmes’ Build to Operate industry solution experience to improve manufacturing execution for our existing and future helicopters programs,” said Jean-Luc Sturlèse, Vice President, Production Flows Management, Airbus Helicopters. “By tightly unifying engineering with our change management process, and by implementing lean processes like just-in-time processing and paperless manufacturing, we aim to improve quality and accelerate production while lowering program costs.”

Read more about Build to Operate for aerospace and defense companies:

Ellen MondroEllen Mondro

Married to aerospace & defense, I write about and develop go to market strategy for @3dsaerospace solutions. It’s an honor to work in this industry and with companies that use technology to create advancements in space, aviation and security. In my precious free time you’ll find me enjoying warm weather, watching my kids’ baseball games and spending time with family and friends.

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